Power System Studies

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Power System Studies

Few components of this study for electrical safety are:

Load Flow Analysis

Why Load Flow Analysis
More importantly it should be performed during planning and development stage of a new system and before alteration to an existing system. It requires measurement of Active Power, Reactive Power, Power factor, Currents, Voltages, Harmonics and circuit loading. Load flow studies are used to determine how much reactive compensation should be applied at a bus, to bring its voltage up to an appropriate level.
These studies are performed with computer aided advanced software like NEPLAN and ETAP, and reports are generated

Short Circuit Analysis

Short circuit is a zero-impedance connection between two nodes. In short circuit analysis we perform both symmetrical and asymmetrical fault analysis. These excessive current potentially causes circuit damage, overheating, magnetic stress, arcing, fire and explosion. One of the major hazards due to short circuits are “Arc Flash” when currents start to pass through ionized air. Different types of faults are LLL, LL, LLG or LG faults. All these fault conditions are analysed in short circuit analysis technique.
Critical location where fault currents should be known in a system are service entrance, panel boards, motor control centres, transfer switches and load centres.
Potential Hazards of Short Circuit.
Why Short Circuit Analysis is required?
Further short circuit analysis is a prerequisite for Protection coordination Analysis and Arc Flash Analysis. Short circuit analysis and its results will enhance the risk reduction and mitigation strategies for the system. It will also ensure the health and normal operation of the system.
Protection Coordination Analysis
Power coordination Analysis provide protection to isolate faulted region from a healthier network. Relay coordination guarantee fast, reliable and selective operation to isolate faulted section of a power system. Protection coordination is based on selectivity features of a protection device to differentiate between a fault and normal operating condition of a system. Relays are the most important component in the protection system for the proper identification of fault and operation of circuit breakers. The study includes determining fault clearing time and coordination of upstream electrical protective equipment. To ensure proper functioning of a relay, selectivity feature of relays is utilized. It is required for set these relays as per pickup current settings and time multiplier settings. It also provides features of application of time delay settings so three-layer protection of a power system can be achieved.
Why Protection Coordination Analysis to be performed?
Benefit of Protection Coordination
Coordination study should be conducted in the tentative planning stage of a new system and selection of protection systems. In case of modification of an existing system or loading a new equipment in the system. It is also required when an existing equipment is replaced with higher rated equipment.
Arc Flash Analysis
An arc flash study is the engineered risk assessment of a workplace facility to determine hazards and risks in relation to electrical systems. It is required to establish safety protocol for qualified electrical personnel required to work on electrical equipment. Arc flash is important analysis for electrical technicians and other workers safety, working in proximity of an electrical apparatus. Flash Protection Boundary is the distance at which the incident energy equals 1.2 cal/cm2. It determines safe operating distance, grading and rating of PPE as per safety standards. Arc flash labelling is essential component of conformance to electrical safety compliances.
Why Arc Flash Analysis to be performed?
As Per NFPA 70E section 130.1 provide provision for Arc flash Analysis. It should be performed for every 5 years interval and at time of system alterations.
How these studies are performed cumulatively